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美欧日联合声明:西方终于明白中共社会主义式冷战没有结束

1)川普9月25日在联大上,明明白白地说:“几乎所有的社会主义或共产主义都经过了尝试,它导致了苦难、腐败和腐朽。社会主义对权力的渴望导致扩张、侵略和压迫。世界上所有国家都应该抵制社会主义及其给每个人带来的苦难。”

2)美欧日三方联合声明(四)纽约2018年9月25日

原创:丁颖(翻译)国际贸易法评论昨天

2018年9月25日,美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)、欧盟贸易委员西西莉亚·玛姆斯托姆(Cecilia Malmstrom)和日本经济贸易和工业部长世耕弘成(Hiroshige Seko)在于纽约进行三方会谈。并在会后发布了联合声明。

第三国非市场主导政策和做法相关声明

部长们重申以下共同关切并确认了解决第三国非市场主导政策和做法问题的共同目标。第三国非市场主导政策和做法导致严重产能过剩,构成三方国内工人和企业不公平的竞争条件,阻碍创新技术的开发和使用,并破坏国际贸易的正常运作,并使得现有规则无效。

部长们回顾到,以市场为主导是公平、互利的全球贸易体系的基础,各方公民和企业在市场条件下运作。部长们讨论了正在采取的行动以及可能在不久的将来会采取的措施。

据此,三方指示其工作人员进一步探讨非市场主导政策和做法在企业和行业中存在的各种要素或迹象,加强对第三国非市场导向政策和做法的信息共享,与其他贸易伙伴一起确定维持市场主导条件的手段,并深化关于执法和规则制定的讨论,以解决上述问题。

产业补贴和国有企业相关声明

部长们审查并确认了有关产业补贴和国有企业可能的新规则的进展情况,以便为其工人和企业提供更公平的竞争环境。部长们强调了确保公平竞争的重要性,因为第三国将国有企业发展成为国内顶尖并任其在全球市场肆虐——导致了对三方国内农民、工业生产商和工人的负面影响。在加强产业补贴和国有企业规则的方面,部长们认识到了现有工作的进展,以及加强共识的持续需要,包括如何制定有效的规则来解决国有企业扭曲市场的行为和对抗特别有害的补贴实践,例如:国有银行的放贷与公司的资信不符,还基于隐性的政府担保;政府或政府控制的基金以非商业条件进行投资;非商业债转股;优惠原料价格,包括双重定价;在没有可靠的重组计划的情况下对不良企业的补贴;以及导致或维持产能过剩的补贴。

三方会继续探讨如何提高透明度和未进行补贴通报的成本,以及如何加强获得补贴相关信息的能力。

部长们还确认会承诺继续共同努力,以维持现有世贸组织规则的有效性。

在此基础上,他们同意加强彼此之间的对话,并表示有意在2018年年底前推进各自的内部流程,以便在此后就更有效的补贴规则进行谈判。部长们强调有必要确保主要贸易伙伴参与今后的谈判。

第三国强制技术转让政策和做法相关声明

部长们回顾了他们的共识,即任何国家都不应该通过合资要求、外国股权限制、行政审查和许可程序或其他方式,要求或迫使外国公司向国内公司转让技术。部长们认为这种做法非常糟糕。

部长们再次谴责政府采取支持未经授权入侵或从外国公司的计算机网络中窃取,以获取敏感的商业信息和商业机密,并将这些信息用于商业目的行为。强迫技术转让政策和做法造成了三方国内工人和企业不公平的竞争条件,阻碍了创新技术的开发和使用,并破坏了国际贸易的正常运作,部长们将就此与其他志同道合的贸易伙伴达成并建立共识。部长们还同意深入调查和分析各种具有危害性的技术转让政策和做法及其影响。

部长们重申将致力采取有效措施制止具有危害性的强制技术转让政策和做法,并为此深化关于执法和规则制定的讨论,以解决此类问题。

关于WTO改革的讨论的声明

部长们对世贸组织改革的必要性持共同看法。就世贸组织其监测和监督职能,部长们同意首先共同提出有关透明度和通知的提案,供货物贸易理事会下次会议审议。

部长们还同意促进加强委员会的常规活动,并指示三国专家讨论由三成员国提出关于最佳实践推广和提高各委员会的效率可能的联合提案。

过于宽泛的发展界定,加上自我定位的发展现状,抑制了世贸组织谈判新的贸易扩大协议的能力,也破坏其有效性。部长们呼吁宣称发展中国家地位的先进的世贸组织成员在世贸组织正在进行和未来的谈判中作出全面承诺。

数字贸易和电子商务相关声明

部长们对数字保护主义泛滥的担忧日益增加,并同意合作促进数字贸易和数字经济的发展,并通过促进数据安全来改善商业环境。

部长们欢迎世贸组织电子商务联合声明倡议下的探索性工作取得进展。他们同意加强和加速WTO规则的更新进程,加深成员之间对需要纳入未来的数字贸易协议的要素,以及此类协议的重大经济效益的共识。部长们同意继续努力,在尽可能多的成员的参与下及时启动高标准协议的谈判。

关于其他问题的合作声明

部长们确认了协同工作在贸易和外国投资领域降低国家安全的风险的重要性,包括三方有关当局之间继续合作,以分享最佳做法和交换有关外国投资审查机制的信息。

部长们欢迎国际出口信贷工作组的三边合作,以便尽快在2019年为政府支持的出口信贷制定一套新的指导方针。

部长们重申在国际论坛,如七国集团、二十国集团和经合组织等国际论坛以及钢铁产能过剩全球论坛和政府间半导体会议等中的合作,以解决扭曲市场措施。

英文原文如下:

Joint Statement on Trilateral Meeting of the Trade Ministers of the United States, Japan, and the European Union

Mr. Hiroshige Seko, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, Ambassador Robert E. Lighthizer, United States Trade Representative, and Mrs. Cecilia Malmström, European Commissioner for Trade, met in New York on25 September2018.

Statement on Concerns with Non-Market-Oriented Policies and Practices of Third Countries

The Ministers reiterated their concern with and confirmed their shared objective to address non market-oriented policies and practices of third countries that lead to severe overcapacity, create unfair competitive conditions for their workers and businesses, hinder the development and use of innovative technologies, and undermine the proper functioning of international trade, including where existing rules are not effective.

The Ministers recalled that market-oriented conditions are fundamental to a fair, mutually advantageous global trading system and that their citizens and businesses operate under market-oriented conditions. They discussed actions being taken and possible measures that could be undertaken in the near future.

Accordingly, they directed their staff to further their discussion on various elements or indications that signal that non-market oriented policies and practices exist for businesses and industries, to enhance information sharing on non-market-oriented policies and practices of third countries, to engage with other trading partners on identifying means to maintain market-oriented conditions, and to deepen discussions on enforcement and rule-making as tools to address these problems.

Statement on Industrial Subsidies and State Owned Enterprise

The Ministers reviewed and confirmed progress regarding possible new rules on industrial subsidies and State Owned Enterprises so as to promote a more level playing field for their workers and businesses. The Ministers highlighted the importance of securing a level playing field given the challenges posed by third parties developing State Owned Enterprises into national champions and setting them loose in global markets– resulting in distortions that negatively affect farmers, industrial producers, and workers in the Ministers’ home countries. The Ministers recognized the progress of their work, and the continued need to deepen their shared understanding, on the basis for strengthening rules on industrial subsidies and State Owned Enterprises, including how to develop effective rules to address market-distorting behavior of state enterprises and confront particularly harmful subsidy practices such as: state-owned bank lending incompatible with a company’s creditworthiness, including due to implicit government guarantees; government or government-controlled investment fund equity investment on non-commercial terms; non-commercial debt-to-equity swaps; preferential input pricing, including dual pricing; subsidies to an ailing enterprise without a credible restructuring plan; and subsidies leading to or maintaining overcapacity.

The trilateral partners continue exploring how to increase the costs of transparency and notification failures and how to strengthen the ability to obtain information on subsidies.

The Ministers also confirmed their commitment to continue working together to maintain the effectiveness of existing WTO disciplines.

On that basis, they agreed to intensify discussions among themselves and expressed their intention to advance their respective internal steps before the end of2018 with the aim of initiating a negotiation on more effective subsidy rules soon thereafter. The Ministers emphasized the need to ensure the participation of key trading partners in these future negotiations.

Statement on Concerns with Forced Technology Transfer Policies and Practices of Third Countries

The Ministers recalled their shared view that no country should require or pressure technology transfer from foreign companies to domestic companies, including, for example, through the use of joint venture requirements, foreign equity limitations, administrative review and licensing processes, or other means. The Ministers found such practices to be deplorable.

The Ministers again condemned government actions that support the unauthorized intrusion into, and theft from, the computer networks of foreign companies to access their sensitive commercial information and trade secrets and use that information for commercial gain. Recalling that forced technology transfer policies and practices create unfair competitive conditions for their workers and businesses, hinder the development and use of innovative technologies, and undermine the proper functioning of international trade, the Ministers will reach out to and build consensus with other like-minded partners. The Ministers also agreed to deepen their investigation and analysis of the full range of harmful technology transfer policies and practices and their effects.

The Ministers affirmed their commitment to effective means to stop harmful forced technology transfer policies and practices, and to this end, deepen discussions on enforcement and rule-making as tools to address these problems.

Statement on Discussions on WTO Reform

The Ministers shared a common view on the need for the reform of the WTO, and, with respect to its monitoring and surveillance function, agreed as a first step to co-sponsor a transparency and notification proposal for consideration at the next meeting of the WTO Council on Trade in Goods.

They also agreed to promote the strengthening of the regular committees’ activities and instructed their experts to discuss the development of a potential joint proposal by the three members focusing on the promotion of best practices and increasing efficiencies across committees.

Overly broad classifications of development, combined with self-designation of development status, inhibits the WTO’s ability to negotiate new, trade-expanding agreements and undermines their effectiveness. The Ministers called on advanced WTO Members claiming developing country status to undertake full commitments in ongoing and future WTO negotiations.

Statement on Digital Trade and E-Commerce

The Ministers shared growing concerns about proliferation of digital protectionism and agreed to cooperate in facilitating digital trade and the growth of the digital economy and to enhance business environments through the promotion of data security.

The Ministers welcome the progress of exploratory work under the WTO Joint Statement Initiative on Electronic Commerce. They agreed to intensify and accelerate this process to deepen understanding among members on possible elements to be included in a future agreement on digital trade aiming at updating the WTO rulebook, as well as the significant economic benefits of such an agreement. The Ministers agreed to continue work toward the timely launch of negotiations of a high standard agreement with the participation of as many members as possible.

Statement on Cooperation on Other Issues

The Ministers confirmed the importance of coordination among themselves to mitigate risks to their national security from trade and foreign investment, including the continued cooperation between appropriate authorities of the three partners to share best practices and exchange information on foreign investment review mechanisms.

The Ministers welcomed trilateral cooperation for the International Working Group on Export Credits to develop a new set of guidelines for government-supported export credits as soon as possible in2019.

The Ministers reaffirmed their cooperation in international fora, such as the G7, G20 and the OECD and in sectoral initiatives such as the Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity and Governments/Authorities Meeting on Semiconductors, to address market-distorting measures.

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