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老外眼中中国皇帝的一日三餐:竟如此孤单寂寞冷!

中国古代皇帝的伙食和就餐习惯,在今天的外国人眼中,究竟是什么画风?

中国人对吃饭这事儿,可有讲究。光"吃饭”这词儿,各地的叫法各不相同。

▲图片来自网络

在古代,皇帝跟老百姓吃饭的叫法也完全不同。

皇帝的一日三餐叫“御膳”;皇帝吃饭这个行为叫“用膳”。

膳可以做名词,有肉、祭祀用的肉等意思。膳还可以用做动词,即饮食、进食的意思。皇帝因为吃的都是珍馐美味,他的饭因为美而善,故称“膳”。也有好几种叫法,如“传膳”、“进膳”、“用膳”等。

▲图片来自网络

对于中国古代皇宫里的饮食,外国人们也有一颗八卦的心。

这两天,一位叫Marcelo Duhalde的外国人,用图文并茂的形式,在South China Morning Post上分(tu)享(cao)了他眼中的中国古代帝王的宫廷饮食习惯。

▲图片截取自South China Morning Post

文章标题为:在紫禁城里,皇帝的一日三餐真是又简朴又冷清。

▲图片来自网络

01

你以为贵为九五至尊,皇帝每餐都是大鱼大肉?

文章一开头,这位老外就说:古代皇帝的伙食完全不符合我的期待啊!怎么这么简单清冷?

One common misconception is that the emperor routinely feasted onlavish meals.His diet was balanced, but surprisingly plain. Boththe Ming and Qing dynasties ate in accordance with the sameprinciple:a diet must promote health.

大家对于中国皇帝的日常饮食有个普遍误解。你以为皇帝顿顿是豪华大餐,但事实上,他们的日常饮食很均衡,均衡到可以用简朴来形容。明朝和清朝的皇帝们的日常饮食都遵循一个原则:必须有益健康。

The Imperial kitchenadjusted the diet of the emperor according tothe season.Lighter dishes were served in the summer with heavier,more nutritious meals in winter. It was believed that light foodincreased body fluids, while heavier meals created more vitalenergy.

御膳房会根据季节调整皇帝的食谱。比如夏天的膳食会清淡一些,冬天的膳食会更富有营养,丰富一些。因为中国人认为清淡的饮食能够生津,补充夏季流失的体液;更丰富厚重的饮食能在冬日为身体提供更多能量。

Menus were drawn up in advancefor each meal and submitted to theinner court minister for approval.

皇帝每天的菜单都是提前安排好的,提交给内务府大臣审核批准。

▲图片来自网络;身体棒棒哒~

"日理万机"的皇帝每餐要吃些什么?跟现代人平时吃的东西有什么区别?

The emperor's diet mostly consisted ofpork, mutton and fowl andvegetables. All the dishes were served with coversthat were removedwhen the emperor took his seat at the table.

皇帝的膳食主要由猪肉,羊肉和禽类和蔬菜组成。所有装有食物的餐盘都必须是盖着的;等皇帝在餐桌前坐下,才能打开。

Main courses includedbird's nest soup, duck, chicken, deer tail,pork, cakes, pastries or pickles. Beef was bannedin the palacebecause it was considered a sin to consume animals that were beastsof burden.

主菜包括燕窝羹,鸭子,鸡,鹿尾,猪肉,糕点和腌菜。但御膳不能有牛肉。在皇宫里吃驮兽的肉被认为是一种罪孽。

Qing dynasty emperors hadtwo formal mealsa day. These were servedon gold dishes or special porcelain manufactured in Jingdezhen inJiangxi province.

清朝皇帝们每天只吃两顿正餐!这些食物都是装在黄金餐盘里或是江西景德镇定制的瓷器餐具里。

皇帝的伙食放到今天,依旧是营养均衡,食材高贵冷艳。

02

但最让老外费解的是:皇帝吃饭怎么连个家人都不在场?

堂堂一国之君,吃饭竟然连个“饭搭子”都没有?

▲图片来自网络

Qing emperors made it their custom toeat meals alone except duringspecial ceremonies,without even the pleasure of family for company.Although the Qianlong Emperor sometimes invited a consort todinner, protocol dictated that all persons, except a dowagerempress, had tostand inthe emperor’s presence.

中国清朝的皇帝们吃饭有个惯例:除了特殊的庆典之外,一日三餐都一个人吃;不用家人们陪同。尽管乾隆皇帝偶尔会约一位爱妃共进晚餐,但按当时皇宫的规定,除了太后,皇帝用膳时所有人都得站着。

The empress and imperial concubines took their meals in their ownpalaces.

皇后和后宫妃子们只能在自己的住所吃饭。

这饭吃得,怎一个冷冷清清了得。

▲图片来自网络

这世上还有什么比一个人吃饭,更孤独的事情?看来皇帝们都是“一人食”boys~

除了没有"饭搭子",这位老外还惊讶地发现——清朝皇帝吃饭的时间和地点都不固定!

During the Qing dynasty, emperorsdid not have a fixed place or timeto take their meals. The emperor would inform his guards when hewished the meal to be served and would sit down to eat wherever hehappened to be at that time of day.

在清代,皇帝并没有固定的地方和时间用膳。当皇帝想用膳了,他会告诉身边的侍卫。他当时身处何处就会在那个地方附近坐下用膳。

The kitchen officials ordered eunuchs to setwhichever table was inthe emperor's vicinitythe moment they were informed of themealtime.

当皇帝想用膳了,御膳房的官员们会让公公们在离皇帝当时临近的桌子上,摆上膳食。

皇帝吃饭的风格,果然跟一般人不一样啊......乘兴而起,乘兴而去,吃得就是一个感觉!

▲图片来自网络

03

这位老外还敏锐地捕捉到,中国古代帝王对于食品安全的重视!

作为一朝天子,最怕的就是吃着吃着,被身边人药死了...

▲图片来自网络

我们来围观一下古代皇帝吃饭的小心谨慎...

The emperors lived in constant fear of assassinationand could notafford to trust even their closest attendants or bodyguards, muchless the officials andeunuchsin charge of meals.

中国的帝王经常活在被暗杀的恐惧中。哪怕是对身边最亲近的侍从和侍卫,他们都不会完全信任。对于负责他饮食的官员和公公们,皇帝那就更不放心了。

When the dishes were placed on the table, the emperor would takeasmall silver plateand insert it several times into each dish.

当餐盘被端上餐桌,皇帝会拿出一个小银盘,然后把它浸入每道菜中,来回几次。

▲图片来自网络

It was believed that the silver plate would change colourif thefood had been poisoned.

当这个小银盘变色了,就说明食物里有毒。

If the emperor was in any doubt, he would command the eunuchwaiting on him to taste the dishes before beginning the mealhimself.

如果皇帝对菜的安全性还不放心,他会让公公先试吃,自己等一会儿再用膳。

小编想说,这么一道程序下来,菜是不是都凉了啊...

尽管如此小心,但历史上被毒死的皇帝,据说还有20来位!

▲图片来自网络

这位老外还对皇帝用膳的餐桌用品充满兴趣。毕竟中国皇宫的餐具,跟外国宫廷里的餐具区别很大。

▲图片截取自South China Morning Post

It includedenamel bowls, plates and dishes, blue and white jadesunflower tureens and gold and silver thread embroidered napkins.Meals for Qing Dynasty emperors were served on gold dishes orspecialporcelain.

皇帝用膳的餐具包括:搪瓷碗盘,青白玉葵花盖碗,金银线绣花餐巾。清朝皇帝的膳食都放在黄金餐盘或者独特的瓷器里。

04

这几年随着中国文化和宫廷剧在国外的走红,越来越多老外对中国古代的宫廷生活方式充满好奇。

▲图片来自VCG

在英文版的“知乎”Quora上面,有很多关于中国古代皇帝和后宫生活的提问。

我们来围观一下外国人的脑洞~

▲图片截取自Quora

还有个老外好奇,中国古代是否有皇帝娶过很丑的女人?她是谁?为什么皇帝会娶她?毕竟皇帝拥有那么大的权力,想娶什么女人娶什么女人。

▲图片来自网络

这问题还真有人回复了。让小编笑一会儿......

▲图片截取自Quora

当然有啊!中国倒数第二位皇帝光绪皇帝就被迫娶了自己的表姐隆裕(1868年2月3日—1913年2月22日)。如图所示,她是不是“美”呆了?

还有外国网友提问:为啥中国的皇帝们有几千位嫔妃,而西方的帝王们只有一位妻子?

▲图片来自网络

▲图片截取自Quora

也有网友好奇,贵为九五至尊,中国古代的帝王是否能随心所欲地生活,做一切他们想做的事情?

你想好怎么回答这些外国网友的问题吗?欢迎留言评论!

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